A 365 Day Devotional Journal
Scripture: 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17; Matthew 9:15; Mark 2:19-20; Luke 5:33-35; Song of Solomon 4:12; 2 Corinthians 3:14-16; 2 John 14:2-3; Isaiah 1:18; Ecclesiastes 9:8; Revelation 4:3-5, 5:6, 6:11, 7:8-15, 19:6-9, 21:6; Jeremiah 31:21-22, Romans 8:11, 34; 1 John 5:11; Zechariah 14:8-9.
The church is betrothed to Jesus, the Bridegroom.
His returns “as a thief in the night,” signals the beginning of the second part of our marriage covenant. The second half of the ancient Jewish marriage ritual, called the nissuin, parallels this and in Hebrew means “to lift” or “to carry.” It signified the beginning of the wedding ceremony and, at its completion; the couple entered into consummated marriage. Notice that nissuin means the same as what we today call “the rapture”. Although rapture is a word not found in the Bible, the equivalent meaning of the two is undeniable.
For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord.1
It was customary in ancient times for both the bridegroom and the bride to fast before their wedding. Some couples today fast the day before. Jesus alluded to this custom and referred to Himself as the Bridegroom:
And Jesus said to them, “Can the friends of the bridegroom mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast.2
The Jewish word for bride in Hebrew is kallah and means: “complete.” “Some teach it means: ‘enclosed one.’3,4
A garden enclosed is my sister, my spouse, a spring shut up, a fountain sealed.5
Prior to the commencement of the wedding ceremony, the groom himself veiled his bride. This is called badeken, which is Yiddish for “covering.” “It is related to the words deken which means ‘to cover’, deknomen which means ‘alias’ (literally cover name), and dektikhl which means ‘veil.’ …This is always an exciting part of the wedding because it is traditional for the bride and groom not to have seen each other for 3-7 days prior to the wedding. After the groom covers the bride’s face with the veil, she will continue to stay veiled until the Seven Blessings (Sheva Brachot) are recited under the chuppah.”6
The veiling conveyed the idea that the bride was a treasure the bridegroom covered because he valued it highly with the idea of modesty being attached to it. Rebecca veiled her face before marrying Isaac, but today it is a practice performed by the groom and accompanied by his father and father-in-law and is based on preventing a repeat performance of the biblical account of Laban, who deceived Jacob into marrying Leah instead of Rachel. The two fathers bless the bride after the groom veils her.
But their minds were blinded. For until this day the same veil remains unlifted in the reading of the Old Testament, because the veil is taken away in Christ. But even to this day, when Moses is read, a veil lies on their heart. Nevertheless when one turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away.7
At this point in the ceremony, the bride and groom are each escorted to the chuppah. They are viewed as equal in status to that of a king and queen, and as such, attended by the formality of an escort. The bridegroom is escorted by both fathers and the bride by both mothers.
The bride typically wears a tiara or coronet. The title “king” and “queen” are bestowed on them at the wedding. “On this day, tradition says that they stand without spot or blemish as they are united.”8 The words spoken during the wedding ceremony are based on Isaiah 61:10-62:5 and from Psalm 45. Incidentally, both the bridegroom and bride are dressed by attendants on this day for the same reason.
Rosh ha Shanah is celebrated during the month of September. This is the Feast of Trumpets, but it is also called “Coronation Day.” Judaic tradition teaches that this is when the Bridegroom will return for Israel, His bride, and they will be crowned king and queen. Their coronation will occur on their wedding day. Jews believe the Messiah will be crowned at this time, Tishre 1 on the Hebrew calendar. The coronation of Elohim as the King of kings is what Rosh ha Shanah is all about. This is a commemoration of His future coming as victorious King, when He will deliver the bride from Satan. Scripture says that Jesus will be given both the heathen and His Kingdom for an inheritance at this time.9
In ancient times, the attendants of the bride carried lamps wicked into oil, lit as a reminder of the presence of the Holy Spirit on Mt. Sinai. Jesus alluded to this tradition in his parable of the ten virgins (Matthew 25:1-3.) A remnant of this tradition may be seen in modern ceremonies, where sometimes candles are incorporated. Joyous singing accompanies them to the chuppah, where all attending rise in honor of the couple just as you would rise for the entrance of a king and queen into your presence. They then proceeded with the remainder of the ceremony. The bride remains veiled until the groom lifts the veil.10
This second part of the marriage wedding ceremony is called the nissuin (or marriage) and takes place in the chuppah (or huppa), which originally was the chamber the bridegroom had spent a year or more preparing for his bride, but now refers to a canopy the couple stand under. It is supported by four poles and open on all four sides.
Jewish tradition holds for the chuppah to be outside, under the sky, symbolic of the hope that, as with Abraham, God will multiply their descendants as the stars in heaven.11
The word chuppah literally means “canopy” or “covering,” and is symbolic of the presence or covering of God over Israel at Mt. Sinai when He presented Himself to them and covenanted with them.
The bridegroom entering the chuppah is symbolic as a visual reminder of God descending onto Mt. Sinai to betroth Israel to Himself. This is why Judaic tradition teaches that God is a participant of the marriage covenant.
When Jesus spoke the words, “There are many rooms in my Father’s house; I would not tell you this if it were not true. I am going there to prepare a place for you. After I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me so that you may be where I Am,”12 they were the same spoken in the first part of the ancient Jewish Wedding ritual. His disciples would have recognized the connection.
The bridegroom arrives at the chuppah wearing a white coat, or kittel, which is a simple white cotton robe. For the bridegroom, this day is like Yom Kippur is for the nation of Israel, a day of repentance when, as the prophet Isaiah wrote, “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow.”13
In modern times, the bride’s gown also is white, symbolizing purity in body and spirit that should last throughout their lives a solemn commitment to God to be holy. Their clothing is a symbolic fulfillment of Solomon’s instruction “Let your garments be always white [with purity], and let your head not lack [the] oil [of gladness].”14
The white robe the bridegroom wears is the same worn by all Jewish men to celebrate the feasts, on special occasions, but also worn as a burial shroud. It is an exquisite reminder of his mortality and that on this, the happiest day of his life, will eventually end in his death and that marriage should last until the death of one of them. Therefore, seek meaning in life, leave godly posterity, rather than a life of empty pursuits.
Around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and on the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting, clothed in white robes; and they had crowns of gold on their heads. And from the throne proceeded lightnings, thunderings, and voices. Seven lamps of fire were burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.15
Then a white robe was given to each of them; and it was said to them that they should rest a little while longer, until both the number of their fellow servants and their brethren, who would be killed as they were, was completed.16
After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could number, of all nations, tribes, peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, with palm branches in their hands, and crying out with a loud voice, saying, “Salvation belongs to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!” All the angels stood around the throne and the elders and the four living creatures, and fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, saying:
“Amen! Blessing and glory and wisdom,
Thanksgiving and honor and power and might,
Be to our God forever and ever.
Then one of the elders answered, saying to me, “Who are these arrayed in white robes, and where did they come from?” And I said to him, “Sir,you know.” So he said to me, “These are the ones who come out of the great tribulation, and washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple. And He who sits on the throne will dwell among them.17
The bride (kallah) circles the bridegroom (chatan) under the Chuppah. Some brides circle three times, citing Hosea 2:21-22, where God says “I betroth you” three times. Others circle the bridegroom seven times, citing Joshua, who encompassed Jericho seven times for the walls to fall and that this represents any walls between the couple will fall and their souls united. Some say this is figurative of building the walls of their new home much like God created our home on earth in seven days. Others say it corresponds to the seven times the Torah says “…and when a man marries a woman…” Still others cite Jeremiah 31:22 where it says a woman will encompass a man. Each of these is significant in its own right, but I found another possibility within Jeremiah. Consider Revelation 4:5
Seven lamps of fire were burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.18
in light of Jeremiah 31:21b-22:
Come back, dear virgin Israel, come back to your hometowns. How long will you flit here and there, indecisive? How long before you make up your fickle mind? God will create a new thing in this land: a transformed woman will embrace the transforming God! 19
This is a quote from the Message Bible, but when laid side-by-side with the translations below, a clarity emerges with the connection between Israel (the woman, the virgin bride) and “the man” (the Bridegroom/Jesus.)
Note – if you are a believer (a follower of Jesus), then according to Romans 11, you are grafted into Israel.
Return, Virgin Israel, return to your towns. How long will you wander, unfaithful Daughter Israel? The LORD will create a new thing on earth — the woman will return to the man.20
Come back again, my virgin Israel; return to your towns here. How long will you wander, my wayward daughter? For the Lord will cause something new to happen —Israel will embrace her God.21
Return, O virgin of Israel, return to these your cities. How long will you go here and there, O faithless daughter? For the LORD has created a new thing in the earth–a woman will encompass a man.22
Is it just possible that the bride circling the bridegroom seven times symbolizes us, the bride, called “the woman” here, encompassing the seven spirits of God just as Jeremiah wrote that the woman (the bride) will return to the man (the Bridegroom)?
The seven spirits of God? I thought God was a triune God, represented by God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit!
You got me. I haven’t a clue on that one.
Then I saw a Lamb standing in the center of the throne and in the middle of the four living creatures and the elders. The Lamb looked as if he had been killed. He had seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God that were sent into all the world.23
While some things we won’t fully grasp until we stand on the other side of eternity, I sure am enjoying trying.
The bridegroom prays as the bride circles him because it is believed that at this moment, while he stands under the chuppah (the covering of God), he is close to God in a special way. He may say a requested prayer for the sick or pray for his friends. Whatever he prays at this moment is considered to be given special favor by God. Jesus eternally has special favor by God because He is His only begotton Son.
Christ Jesus is He who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us.24
In ancient times, the first glass of wine was drunk at the agreement of betrothal (ketubah.) and a blessing spoken then. It is not until after the encircling and two blessings are spoken that today couples drink from the first of two glasses of wine.
Marriage reflects the first union between Adam and Eve, who set not a private stage, but a stage for the playing out of all human history. Marriage is ultimately a reflection of the survivability of the covenant, and God’s covenant with humanity was not made individually but collectively.25
So marriage before God is a reflection of the survivability of God’s covenant with mankind. Demonstrated here is yet another reason why today the sanctity of the home and, by extrapolation, the marriage of one man to one woman is under such strong attack.
The bridegroom then places a gold wedding band on the bride’s right forefinger. The belief is that the forefinger is more easily seen and the right hand symbolizes strength.“As the groom places the ring on the bride’s finger, he says ‘Be sanctified (mekudeshet) to me with this ring in accordance with the law of Moses and Israel.’ The exchange of the wedding ring is the heart of the wedding ceremony, the point at which the couple is considered to be married.”26 The words “The law of Moses and Israel” repeat the emphasis of the marriage covenant being a public affair, one that encompasses all the people.
The words of the groom here echo what they covenanted with each other in the ketubah, betrothal, when then signed the marriage contract (covenant). At that time, they were considered “set apart”, which is what sanctified, or holy, means. We, as the Bride of Christ, have been set apart, sanctified, made holy, by the Blood of the Lamb.
At this point in the ceremony, the ketubah (betrothal document) is read aloud by the officiating rabbi. It traditionally is read in Aramaic, but many times today only the opening and closing paragraphs are read in Aramaic, with the main body spoken in English. The rabbi then gives the ketubah to the bride, since the document contains the bridegroom’s promises and obligations and is considered the bride’s property to cherish and protect.
For the church, our ketubah is the Bible, God’s Word, which was given to us by God. Not only this, but Jesus is The Word. It contains all the promises and obligations of the Bridegroom to the bride and of the bride to the Bridegroom, Jesus.
The recitation of seven blessings, called the Sheva Berakhot, follows the reading of the ketubah. While this liturgy is recited, the rabbi holds up a second cup of wine and, upon finishing the recitation, the bridegroom and bride drink from the cup. A Sephardic tradition at this point is for a parent to drape the bride and groom in a tallit (prayer shawl) before the recitation of the blessing begins, emphasizing the intimacy of the moment. “The seven blessings of the sheva brachot are extensively quoted in the Babylonian Talmud (Ketubot 8a) and have remained the basic part of the wedding ceremony.”27
Blessed are You, Adonai our God, King of the Universe, Creator of the fruit of the vine.
Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the universe, Who has created everything for your glory.
Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the universe, Creator of Human Beings.
Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the universe, Who has fashioned human beings in your image, according to your likeness and has fashioned from it a lasting mold. Blessed are You Adonai, Creator of Human Beings.
Bring intense joy and exultation to the barren one (Jerusalem) through the ingathering of her children amidst her in gladness. Blessed are You, Adonai, Who gladdens Zion through her children.
Gladden the beloved companions as You gladdened Your creatures in the garden of Eden. Blessed are You, Adonai, Who gladdens groom and bride.
Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the universe, Who created joy and gladness, groom and bride, mirth, glad song, pleasure, delight, love, brotherhood, peace, and companionship. Adonai, our God, let there soon be heard in the cities of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem the sound of joy and the sound of gladness, the voice of the groom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the grooms’ jubilance from their canopies and of the youths from their song-filled feasts. Blessed are You Who causes the groom to rejoice with his bride.28
The seven blessings echo the timing of creation and acknowledge God’s creation of Adam and Eve and their placement in the Garden. They also reiterate the central theme of the Song of Solomon. The idea that this is how it was in the beginning is emphasized throughout, hearkening to a time in the future when God will restore mankind to his rightful place beside the Bridegroom.
The blessings are traditionally chanted in Hebrew but may also be read in English.
The final element of the wedding ceremony comes when the groom shatters a glass under his foot, a practice originating in the Talmud. Everyone shouts “Mazel Tov!” The familiar words ring out good fortune, may your lives here not be shattered but full of joy. The couple departs at this time from under the chuppah to go to a private room to break their fast with light refreshment before joining their guests in the marriage feast.
Tradition holds that the sheva berakhot again be recited at the wedding feast over another glass of wine, following birkat hamazon (the grace after meals). This solitary cup of wine is symbolically divided into two cups (the bridegroom and bride) then both poured into a different, third cup. “The wine that has been mixed together is poured back into cups for the bride and groom, and also poured into the third cup, shared by the community. This ritual shows how the couple is now connected, and how their life together is intertwined with community.”29
For the next seven days, the couple is honored at feasts in the homes of different friends each night. This Jewish tradition continues the theme of kingship bestowed on the couple, each of the seven feasts are called Sheva berakhot, and after each meal the seven blessings are again recited (as long as ten men are present and as long as each meal has one new person present who did not attend the wedding.) Putting community first in these seven days of feasting reinforces the idea that the community’s involvement is necessary to enable the couple to start out their new life in a right manner. Today, while still important, the sheva berakhot feasts are observed more often in traditional circles, with the couples postponing honeymoon trips until the week is completed.
Then I heard something like the voice of a great multitude and like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty peals of thunder, saying, “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns. Let us rejoice and be glad and give the glory to Him, for the marriage of the Lamb has come and His bride has made herself ready.” It was given to her to clothe herself in fine linen, bright and clean; for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. Then he said to me, “Write, ‘Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb ‘” And he said to me, “These are true words of God.”30
The Song of Solomon or, more eloquently put, the Song of Songs, is a complex book of many layers. As an allegory, it demonstrates the love between the bride of Christ and the Bridegroom, Jesus. The wedding imagery here, too, is reminiscent of the creation of Adam and Eve and the first marriage.
On a final note, Song of Solomon and Genesis share a connection with the breath of God, His creation, and “living waters”:
Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices: A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and streams from Lebanon. Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits. ~ Song 4:14-16, KJV
And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. ~ Genesis 2:7-8, KJV
The word for ‘blow’ in the Songs verse above is puwach, (Strong’s H6315.) It is a primitive root meaning “to breathe.”31 The word ‘breath’ in the Genesis passage is nĕshamah (Strong’s H5397), literally, “the breath of God, spirit.”32
The word for ‘breathed’ in Genesis, above, is naphach (Strong’s H5301) is another primitive root meaning “to breathe.”33
Here is where it gets interesting.
The words for ‘living waters’ in the Songs passage is chay mayim (Strong’s H2416, H4325). Chay comes from the primitive root word, chayah (Strong’s H2421), which means to live forever, or to give life. It is compared to chavah (Strong’s H2331), meaning to declare, make known, to breathe.34 Mayim (Strong’s H4325) is the dual of a primitive noun used in the singular sense and means watersprings or watercourse (a gushing fountain).35
Then He said to me, ” It is done I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end I will give to the one who thirsts from the spring of the water of life without cost.36
But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.37
And the testimony is this, that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son.38
The Hebrew word, chay, in living (waters) in Song of Solomon is the exact word used twice in Genesis for (breath of) life, and then living (soul). The idea I get from this is that the original intent of marriage is an eternal, forever living union, as one.
And it shall be in that day that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them to the eastern [Dead] Sea and half of them to the western [Mediterranean] Sea; in summer and in winter shall it be. And the Lord shall be King over all the earth; in that day the Lord shall be one [in the recognition and worship of men] and His name one.39
Does this excite you? It should. It is what God is preparing us for.
Are you ready?
Read: 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17; Matthew 9:15; Mark 2:19-20; Luke 5:33-35; Song of Solomon 4:12; 2 Corinthians 3:14-16; 2 John 14:2-3; Isaiah 1:18; Ecclesiastes 9:8; Revelation 4:3-5, 5:6, 6:11, 7:8-15, 19:6-9, 21:6; Jeremiah 31:21-22, Romans 8:11, 34; 1 John 5:11; Zechariah 14:8-9. Journal your private thoughts.
Father God, my heart burns within me at the revelation of Your Word. As I look expectantly for Your return, enable me by Your Spirit to keep my lamp full of oil and make ready for our marriage. Though much of this to me is yet a mystery, for I see in part and know in part, I believe Your Word. You are Truth. amen.
11 Thessalonians 4:16-17. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
2Matthew 9:15. (See also Mark 2:19-20; Luke 5:33-35.) Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
3“A Fresh Look at the Jewish Wedding.” A Mayim Hayim Study. Barbara De Gilio. Mayim Hayim Ministries. http://www.mayimhayim.org/JewishWedding.htm (Accessed 25 April, 2011).
4On a personal note, this holds special meaning for our family because our youngest is named a derivative of Carmelina. The name originates from the Hebrew but also is an Italian, Spanish, and Latin name, meaning Vineyard of God and golden (as a Hebrew diminutive form of Carmel, Karmel), garden orchard (as a diminutive form of Carmen [Hebrew], Carmel [Italian] and Carmelo [Spanish] meaning God’s vineyard, garden, song and Carmine [Latin], meaning song, tune, or poem, and is the root of the English word charm), vineyard, song, truthful, poem.
“Carmelina.” Think Baby Names. http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/0/Carmelina (Accessed 29 April 2011).
“Carmen” Think Baby Names. http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/1/Carmen (Accessed 29 April 2011).
Wikipedia contributors, “Carmen (name),” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carmen_(name)&oldid=416816519 (accessed April 30, 2011).
“Meaning of Carmelina.” Parents Connect: Baby Names. http://babynamesworld.parentsconnect.com/meaning_of_Carmelina.html (Accessed April 29 2001).
“Carmelina, Hebrew name.” Meaning-of-Names. www.meaning-of-names.com/hebrew-names/carmelina.asp (Accessed April 29 2011).
“Carmelina, Italian name.” Meaning-of-Names. http://www.meaning-of-names.com/italian-names/carmelina.asp (Access April 29 2011).
“Carmelina.” Baby Names. http://www.babynames.com/name/CARMELINA (Accessed April 29 2011.)
“Carmelina – meaning of the name.” Baby Names, Fortune Baby. http://babynames.fortunebaby.com/meaning_of_the_name_carmelina.html (Accessed April 29, 2011).
5Song of Solomon 4:12. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
6“How to Celebrate a Traditional Jewish Wedding.” About.com. Lisa Katz.
http://www.netplaces.com/jewish-weddings/the-wedding-weekend-and-sabbath/ (Accessed April 25, 2011).
72 Corinthians 3:14-16. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
8 “The Ancient Jewish Wedding Ceremony: How does it picture Messiah Yahushua and His Bride?” Lay Down Life. http://www.laydownlife.net/yedidah/AncientJewishWeddingCeremony.htm (Accessed April 26, 2011).
9Refer to: Daniel 7:9, 13-14, 27; Psalm 2:6, Genesis 49:10, Zechariah 9:9. Revelation 1:7; 11:15-19; 19:11-16.
10“Badeken – Veiling.” Jewish Marriage: Becoming One. Chabad. A Division of the Chabad-Lubavitch Media Center. http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/477333/jewish/Badeken-Veiling.htm (Accessed April 25, 2011).
11Wikipedia contributors, “Chuppah,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chuppah&oldid=421834047 (accessed April 25, 2011).
12John 14:2-3. Scripture taken from the New Century Version. Copyright © 2005 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
13Isaiah 1:18. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
14Ecclesiastes 9:8. Scripture quotations taken from the Amplified® Bible, Copyright © 1954, 1958, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1987 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.lockman.org
15Revelation 4:3-5. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
16Revelation 6:11. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
17Revelation 7:8-15. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
18Revelation 4:5b. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
19Jeremiah 31:21b-22. Emphasis mine. Scripture taken from The Message. Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002. Used by permission of NavPress Publishing Group. http://www.messagebible.com
20Jeremiah 31:21b-22. Emphasis mine. THE HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®, NIV® Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.™ Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. www.biblica.com
21Jeremiah 31:21b-22. Emphasis mine. Scripture quotation taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright ©1996, 2004, 2007 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved. www.tyndale.com
22Jeremiah 31:21b-22 Emphasis mine. Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.lockman.org
23Revelation 5:6. Emphasis mine. Scripture taken from the New Century Version. Copyright © 2005 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. www.nelsonbibles.com
24Romans 8:34b. Emphasis mine. Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.lockman.org
25“Erusin: The First of the Two Ceremonies.” Excerpted with permission from Celebration and Renewal: Rites of Passage in Judaism. Rela Mintz Geffen, Ed. (Jewish Publication Society).Emphasis and parenthetical inserts mine. My Jewish Learning. Rabbi Daniel H. Gordis. http://www dot myjewishlearning dot com/life/Life_Events/Weddings/Liturgy_Ritual_and_Cutrom/Erusin.shtml?LFLE (Accessed April 26, 2011). [Link disabled 12/26/2013 due to malware attack on MyJewishLearning.]
26“How to Celebrate a Traditional Jewish Wedding.” About.com. Lisa Katz. http://judaism.about.com/od/weddings/ss/wedding_how_10.htm (Accessed April 26. 2011).
27“Sheva Brachot, or Seven Blessings: An Ancient Tradition is Revived in Contemporary Judaism.” Cleveland Jewish News. Herb Geduld. http://www.clevelandjewishnews.com/articles/2003/10/28/special/weddings/special15.txt (Accessed April 27, 2011).
28“The Sheva Berakhot: Abundant Blessings for the Bride and Groom.” My Jewish Learning. Gabrielle Kaplan-Mayer. http://www dot myjewishlearning dot com/life/Life_Events/Wedding/Liturgy_Ritual_and_Custom/Sheva_Berakhot.shtml (Accessed April 27, 2011). Note: this is a translation of the seven blessings from Ketubot 8a of the Babylonian Talmud. [Link disabled 12/26/2013, due to malware attack on MyJewishLearning.]
29“The Sheva Berakhot: Abundant Blessings for the Bride and Groom.” My Jewish Learning. Gabrielle Kaplan-Mayer. http://www dot myjewishlearning dot com/life/Life_Events/Weddings/Liturgy_Ritual_and_Custom/Sheva_Berakhot.shtml?LFLE (Accessed April 26, 2011). [Link disabled 12/26/2013, due to malware attack on MyJewishLearning.]
30Revelation 19:6-9. Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.lockman.org
31Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for puwach (Strong’s 6315)”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 27 Apr 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H6315&t=KJV
32Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for nĕshamah (Strong’s 5397)”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 27 Apr 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H5397&t=KJV
33Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for naphach (Strong’s 5301)”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 27 Apr 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H5301&t=KJV
34Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for chay (Strong’s 2416)”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 27 Apr 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H2416&t=KJV
35Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for mayim (Strong’s 4325)” Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 27 Apr 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H4325&t=KJV
36 Revelation 21:6. Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.lockman.org
37Romans 8:11. (See also Romans 4:17; 2 Corinthians 3:6; 1 Timothy 6:13; Acts 17:25; John 6:51, 6:63.) Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.lockman.org
381 John 5:11. (See also John 4:14; 5:21; 10:28, 17:2) Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.lockman.org
39Zechariah 14:8-9. Scripture quotations taken from the Amplified® Bible, Copyright © 1954, 1958, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1987 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. www.Lockman.org
Copyright © 2011, Érin Elise